Also called hedge apple, horse apple, monkey ball, bois d'arc, bodark, and bodock.

In the autumn, produces large numbers of tough fruit.  Once widespread in the Americas, it probably evolved this tough fruit with and to be spread by mastodon, mammoth, and giant ground-sloth.[1][2]  After the Holocene extinction removed these large herbivorous megafauna, the fruit usually rotted-in-place, leading to poor seed-dispersal and a steep decline in range to one river valley in parts of Texas, Oklahoma and Arkansas.[1][2]  American Indians valued the tree's strong, flexible wood to make ♐︎ bows for ↣ arrows.  Later, Europeans named the locals Osage Indians, and named the tree after them.[1][2]

Due to the tree's long thorns and the way it spreads, farmers soon planted the tree widely along fencelines.  The tree is now quite common across the 🇺🇸 USA and 🇨🇦 Ontario.[3]

References
[1] The Trees That Miss The Mammoths by Whit Bronaugh retrieved 2016-12-06 by EP.
[2] Anachronistic Fruits and the Ghosts Who Haunt Them by Connie Barlow retrieved 2016-12-06 by EP.
[3] Personal communication, a while back by EP's great-aunt and -uncle to EP.  They had several on their property line.

Uses by native peoples
(Ethnobotany database)

Learn more about Osage orange Maclura pomifera

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