Also called garlic root, hedge garlic, penny hedge, Jack-by-the-hedge, Jack-in-the-bush, sauce-alone and poor man's mustard.

Part of cabbage/mustard  family Brassicaceae.

Native to 🇪🇺 Europe, northern Africa, and western and central Asia.   Invasive > learn+quiz Invasive > 🌐︎ global Invasive > 🌐︎ various Invasive > 🇨🇦 🇺🇸 Canada+USA Invasive > report it! Invasive > 🇺🇸 USA Invasive > Michigan   Inv. trading card  Adobe Acrobat Reader file Inv. identification card  Adobe Acrobat Reader file

🚼︎ For kids!  This plant described in invasive species placemat  Adobe Acrobat Reader file series.

Uses by native peoples
(Ethnobotany database)
  On No-Planting List by Seneca Nation of Indians SNI.  Adobe Acrobat Reader file (page 60)

Garlic mustard was brought to 🇨🇦 🇺🇸 North America by 👥︎⛵︎ European settlers, who used it as a 🍲︎ "pot herb" or green in stews, early in the growing season, when it is the only green available.  Later, it escaped into the wild, and people forgot how to cook with it.  Recently, some are rediscovering how to do so.  This author has tasted a pesto made in the local 🏫︎ Middle School — very tasty.

Recipes, story and recipe, recipe book Pest to Pesto 2.

Photos of 2-year lifecycle of garlic mustard.  Adobe Acrobat Reader file   Nice drawing.  Adobe Acrobat Reader file (page 36)

In areas where garlic mustard is invasive, garlic mustard inhibits the growth of a fungus required by most native plants, resulting in a garlic mustard desert.  GM does this by producing and releasing the allelopathic chemical benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), which inhibits the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi, required by the native plants' roots, via a symbiotic relationship.
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Learn more about garlic mustard Alliaria petiolata

Treatment methods and timing (40–45°N lat.)  Adobe Acrobat Reader file Management and Control (Wisconsin)  Adobe Acrobat Reader file Best Control Practices BCP (Michigan)  Adobe Acrobat Reader file Best Control Practices BCP (Ontario)  Adobe Acrobat Reader file and its Technical Bulletin  Adobe Acrobat Reader file Fact sheet (Ontario) 🇫🇷 en français  Adobe Acrobat Reader file Garlic mustard may be Michigan's worst woodland weed Control (Maryland)  Adobe Acrobat Reader file (page 9)

Natural insect enemy of invasive garlic mustard ( garlic mustard aphid  Lipaphis alliarae ) found in USA's CT, MA, MI, MN, OH and WI.
Biology and Biological Control  Adobe Acrobat Reader file Biological Control in Eastern USA  Adobe Acrobat Reader file (page 373)

🔍︎ 🔍︎ images Discover Life Encyclopedia of Life Michigan Flora MSUE article (Minnesota) Wild Flower Garden Minnesota Wildflowers Missouri Plants Flora of North America NRCS PLANTS db USFS Wikipedia