specifically …

Taxonomy (biological naming terminology)
Native gardening terminology
Tree terminology
Twig features useful in identification
Leaf terminology

Taxonomy (biological naming terminology)

In ICSN, we use biological names, here laid out from broad to the narrow in the taxonomic hierarchy:

Tree terminology

To keep straight terminology about trees, we made this table:

TermOf these, MOST are …… while the remainder are …The OPPOSITE/​ALTERNATIVE of the term …
🌳︎ broadleaf 🍃︎ deciduous evergreen 🌲︎ conifer
🌳︎ broadleaf hardwood [1] [2] softwood [1] [2] 🌲︎ conifer
🌲︎ conifer evergreen 🍃︎ deciduous 🌳︎ broadleaf
🌲︎ conifer softwood [1] [2] hardwood [1] [2] 🌳︎ broadleaf
🍃︎ deciduous 🌳︎ broadleaf 🌲︎ conifer evergreen
🍃︎ deciduous hardwood [1] [2] softwood [1] [2] evergreen
evergreen 🌲︎ conifer 🌳︎ broadleaf 🍃︎ deciduous
evergreen softwood [1] [2] hardwood [1] [2] 🍃︎ deciduous
hardwood [1] [2] 🍃︎ deciduous evergreen softwood [1] [2]
hardwood [1] [2] 🌳︎ broadleaf 🌲︎ conifer softwood [1] [2]
softwood [1] [2] evergreen 🍃︎ deciduous hardwood [1] [2]
softwood [1] [2] 🌲︎ conifer 🌳︎ broadleaf hardwood [1] [2]

Leaf terminology

When we starting writing ICSN, we used the terminology in this leaf chart,  and this article on phyllotaxis.

Then, we came across this Manual of Leaf Architecture (MLA) (useful bits).  Adobe Acrobat Reader file   It seemed very specific.  It used a couple terms differently than we did, terms that are used differently by different authors.  Trying to pin down the ambiguity, we found that this document is an extract of a parent doc Manual of Leaf Architecture (MLA) (full).  Adobe Acrobat Reader file

Completing the survey, we decided to standardize on this MLA document's terminology.  With a few exceptions for simplicity:

Sorted by ICSN term
ICSN termMLA term
base [opposite of tip] base [opposite of apex]
blade laminus [of a leaf]
🍂︎ non-lobed unlobed
✋︎🌿︎ palmately-compound palmately compound
✋︎♧ palmately-lobed palmately lobed
-⋘- 🌿︎ pinnately-compound pinnately compound
-⋘- ♧ pinnately-lobed pinnately lobed
___ smooth margins

     some other sources:
🍂︎ non-lobed ___ smooth
entire [-ly devoid of teeth]

Ambiguity Alert:  Some other sources
     use "entire" to also imply non-lobed.
▲▲ teeth teeth types "serrate", "dentate", "crenate", "erose" or "revolute"
tip [opposite of base] apex [opposite of base]

Sorted by MLA term
MLA termICSN term
apex [opposite of base] tip [opposite of base]
base [opposite of apex] base [opposite of tip]
entire [-ly devoid of teeth]

Ambiguity Alert:  Some other sources
     use "entire" to also imply non-lobed.
___ smooth margins

     some other sources:
🍂︎ non-lobed ___ smooth
laminus [of a leaf] blade
palmately compound ✋︎🌿︎ palmately-compound
palmately lobed ✋︎ palmately-lobed
pinnately compound -⋘- 🌿︎ pinnately-compound
pinnately lobed -⋘- pinnately-lobed
teeth types "serrate", "dentate", "crenate", "erose" or "revolute" ▲▲ teeth
unlobed 🍂︎ non-lobed

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More Definitions and Abbreviations of Terms.