Also called grey pine, and scrub pine (although do not confuse with sister-species scrub pine  Pinus virginiana, which is also called that).

Part of 🌲︎ pine  genus Pinus in 🌲︎ cedar / fir / hemlock / larch / pine / spruce  family Pinaceae in 🌲︎ conifer  order Pinales.

Native to 🇨🇦 Canada, and northernmost continental 🇺🇸 USA.

🗺 Map (scroll down), 🗺 map (North America, Central America),  Adobe Acrobat Reader file 🗺 today + with climate change (eastern 🇺🇸 USA).

In this area (particularly 🇨🇦 Canada AB BC SK, and 🇺🇸 USA AZ CA CO ID MO MT NV NM OR SD UT WA WI WY):

  • do not move pine logs, stumps, branches, firewood nor untreated lumber
due to possible infestation by the insect mountain pine beetle (MPB)  Dendroctonus ponderosae, which carries various species of 🍄︎ fungus / mushroom  kingdom Fungi.

Uses by native peoples
(Ethnobotany database)

Pinus hosts caterpillars of 247 species
of butterflies and moths, in some areas.
  This plant is also known to be a host for (in areas where invasive) 🐝︎ spotted lanternfly (SLF)  Lycorma delicatula.

Jack pine requires 🔥︎ fire to 🌱︎ ger­mi­nate, to melt the sap in their very-tough seratonous (resin-filled) cones, releasing the seeds.  Thus, jack pine forests are often composed of trees all the same age, all 🌱︎🌱︎🌱︎ ger­mi­nated together after a fire moved through (and perhaps killed their parents).

Jack pine often grows with aspen/​cottonwood/​poplar  genus Populus — after a fire, both grow fast and eventually would get ⛱ shaded out by spruce  genus Picea and fir  genus Abies, until again invig­or­ated by the next cycle of fire.

These young fire-invig­or­ated jack pine are essential for nesting of the endangered 🐦︎ Kirtland's warbler or jack pine bird  Setophaga kirtlandii. [1] [2]   A success story:  after decades of habitat management designed to mimic the effects of wildfire, the bird has recovered enough to be removed from the federal endangered species list.

Cones of jack pine point toward its branch tips.


[1]  Rubin, Neal.  "Endangered no more, could Kirtland's warbler replace robin as state bird?"  The Detroit News.  .   Accessed .

[2]  McWhirter, Sheri.  "Can intentional forest burning across the Great Lakes help prevent runaway wildfires?"  Grand Rapids Press.  .   Accessed .

Learn more about jack pine Pinus banksiana

🔍︎ 🔍︎ images Discover Life Encyclopedia of Life Gymnosperm database Michigan Flora (Minnesota) Wildflower Garden Minnesota Wildflowers Missouri Botanical Garden Flora of North America USDA PLANTS db USFS USFS Silvics Wikipedia