with needles that are …

___ flat, flexible  or
◼︎♦ 4-sided[?], | stiff and sharp, and twig=rough where needles fall off
spruce  genus Picea
◯ round with axial groves, segmented, tips have projections, looks like horse hair
🇦🇺 Australian pine  Casuarina equisetifolia

Needles are ___ flat and flexible

and splay …

left + right + up + down + all angles  or
left + right a little more than up + down + all angles  or
left + right :

Needles splay left + right a little more than up + down + all angles

needles=very long, 2½-6 cm (1-2½ in), and far apart;  needle upper- and undersurface each have two white stripes
◼︎ white fir  Abies concolor

needle undersurface=whitish;  northern Canada or USA;  fragrant
balsam fir  Abies balsamea

needle undersurface=whitish;  USA 🗻︎ Appalachia
Fraser fir  Abies fraseri

needle undersurface=whitish, needle lengths differ from each other

western North America
western hemlock  Tsuga heterophylla

eastern North America
eastern hemlock  Tsuga canadensis

needle undersurface=not whitish, needles shorter toward end of twig

end of twigs shed with needles (look at base of tree)
bald cypress  Taxodium distichum