with needles that are . . .

flat and pliable or

4-sided and stiff, sharp, and twig=rough where needles fall off
spruce genus Picea
or

◯ round with axial groves, segmented, tips have projections, looks like horse hair
🇦🇺 Australian pine Casuarina equisetifolia
:

Needles are flat and pliable

and splay . . .
left + right + up + down + all angles or
left + right :

Needles splay left + right

undersurface=not whitish;  shorter toward end of twig, shed with them
bald cypress Taxodium distichum

undersurface=whitish;  lengths differ from each other;  western North America
western hemlock Tsuga heterophylla

undersurface=whitish;  lengths differ from each other;  eastern North America
eastern hemlock Tsuga canadensis

undersurface=whitish;  northern Canada or USA;  fragrant
balsam fir Abies balsamea

undersurface=whitish;  USA Appalachia
Fraser fir Abies fraseri