with needles or scales that are . . .
long (1-45 cm) (½-18 in) or
short (<1 cm)   (<½ in) :

Needles or scales = long (1-45 cm) (½-18 in), arranged . . .

singly                   >   firs spruces hemlock

in bundles of 2-5   >   pines genus Pinus

in tufts of 6+, 🍃︎ deciduous   >   larches genus Larix

Soft spikes in new growth and overlapping scales in old growth

bark=light shreddy;  if present, fruit=juicy, smaller than little fingernail   >   junipers genus Juniperus

Overlapping scales, branch ends splay flat as if ironed

twig ends look jointed   >   incense cedar Calocedrus decurrens
foliage=fragrant and glossy;  cones=oblong, leathery   >   western redcedar Thuja plicata
cones=spherical;  can rub white off foliage   >   Port Orford cedar Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
in swamp or area of limestone   >   northern white cedar / eastern arborvitae Thuja occidentalis

Learn more about conifers order Pinales

Together with ginkgo Ginkgo biloba , cycads and a few more, conifers have 'naked' seeds (gymnosperm), by not enclosing its seeds by any ovary structure.

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