with needles or scales that are . . .
🌲︎ there now
evergreen or growing season
  🍃︎ now gone
deciduous, dormant season
 
:

Needles or scales = long (1-45 cm) (½-18 in), arranged . . .

singly
firs spruces hemlock

in bundles of 2-5
pines genus Pinus

in tufts of 6+, 🍃︎ deciduous
larches genus Larix

Soft spikes in new growth and overlapping scales in old growth

bark=light shreddy;  if present, fruit=juicy, smaller than little fingernail
junipers genus Juniperus

Overlapping scales, branch ends splay flat as if ironed

twig ends look jointed
incense cedar Calocedrus decurrens

foliage=fragrant and glossy;  cones=oblong, leathery
western redcedar Thuja plicata

cones=spherical;  can rub white off foliage
Port Orford cedar Chamaecyparis lawsoniana

in swamp or area of limestone
northern white cedar / eastern arborvitae Thuja occidentalis

Learn more about 🌲︎ conifers order Pinales

Conifers (together with ginkgo Ginkgo biloba , cycads order Cycadales and a few more), have 'naked' seeds (gymnosperm), by not enclosing its seeds with any ovary structure.

Encyclopedia of Life Google Google images USDA PLANTS db Wikipedia