with needles or scales that are …
🌲︎ there now
evergreen or growing season
  🍃︎ now gone
deciduous, dormant season

Needles or scales = long (1-45 cm) (½-18 in), arranged …

firs spruces hemlock

in bundles of 2-5
pines  genus Pinus

in tufts of 6+, 🍃︎ deciduous
larches  genus Larix

Soft spikes in new growth and overlapping scales in old growth

bark=light shreddy;  if present, fruit=juicy, smaller than little fingernail
junipers  genus Juniperus

Overlapping scales, branch ends splay — flat as if ironed

twig ends look jointed
incense cedar  Calocedrus decurrens

foliage=fragrant and glossy;  cones=oblong, leathery
western redcedar  Thuja plicata

cones=spherical;  can rub white off foliage
Port Orford cedar  Chamaecyparis lawsoniana

in swamp or area of limestone
northern white cedar / eastern arborvitae  Thuja occidentalis

Learn more about 🌲︎ conifers order Pinales

Pinales hosts caterpillars of >247 species
of butterflies and moths, in some areas.

Conifers (together with ginkgo  Ginkgo biloba, cycads  order Cycadales and a few more), have 'naked' seeds ( gymnosperm ), by not enclosing its seeds with any ovary structure.

Encyclopedia of Life Google Google images Gymnosperm database USDA PLANTS db Wikipedia