Twigs=thick (≥6 mm) (≥¼ in) AND terminal bud=conspicuous and ⬮ oval

terminal bud=dark smooth sticky long (≥6 mm) (≥¼ in)   >   🌰︎ horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum or
terminal bud=light-colored or rough or not sticky or short (<6 mm) (<¼ in) :

Twigs=thin  (<6 mm) (<¼ in)  OR  terminal bud=inconspicuous or not ⬮ oval

terminal bud=rough+dry;  leaf scars=shield- or oval-shaped, bundle scars make line   >   ashes genus Fraxinus

leaf scars= angular (V-shaped), each leaf scar has 3 bundle scars   >   🍁︎ maples genus Acer
leaf scars join to make line around twig, each leaf scar has 3 bundle scars   >   flowering dogwood Cornus florida