Twigs=thick (≥6 mm) (≥¼ in) AND terminal bud=​conspicuous and ⬮ oval

terminal bud=dark smooth sticky long (≥6 mm) (≥¼ in)
🌰︎ horse chestnut  Aesculus hippocastanum
terminal bud=light-colored or rough or not-sticky or short (<6 mm) (<¼ in) :

Twigs=thin  (<6 mm) (<¼ in)  OR  terminal bud=​inconspicuous or not ⬮ oval

terminal bud=rough+dry;  leaf scars=shield- or oval-shaped, bundle scars make line
ashes  genus Fraxinus

leaf scars= angular (V-shaped), each leaf scar has 3 bundle scars
🍁︎ maples  genus Acer

leaf scars join to make line all around twig, each leaf scar has 3 bundle scars
flowering dogwood  Cornus florida