Bark=thick or rough

cones=stiff tough;  buds=smooth stalked;  pith=​triangular
🇪🇺 European black alder  Alnus glutinosa

bark=long ■ square-ended strips peel upward;  twigs=​slender
American hophornbeam / ironwood  Ostrya virginiana

Learn more about alder/​birch/​hazel/​hornbeam family Betulaceae

Part of bayberry / beech / birch / oak / walnut  order Fagales.

Betulaceae hosts caterpillars of 403 species
of butterflies and moths, in some areas.

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