Bark=thick or rough

cones=stiff tough;  buds=smooth stalked;  pith=​triangular
European black alder  Alnus glutinosa

bark=long ■ square-ended strips peel upward;  twigs=slender
American hophornbeam / ironwood  Ostrya virginiana

Learn more about birch/alder/hazel/hornbeam family Betulaceae

Betulaceae hosts caterpillars of 403 species
of butterflies and moths, in some areas.

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