Bark=thick or rough

cones=stiff tough;  buds=smooth stalked;  pith=triangular     >   European alder Alnus glutinosa
bark=long square-ended strips peel upward;  twigs=slender   >   American hophornbeam / ironwood Ostrya virginiana

Learn more about birch/alder/hazel/hornbeam family Betulaceae

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