with …

twigs=◼︎ square with ✦ corky wings;  bark=breaks into plates;  seed is ½ length of helicopter wide wing
◼︎ blue ash  Fraxinus quadrangulata

OR they are NOT, but with …
leaf scar[?] shape= horseshoe;  bark=ridged with narrow--diamond-shapes
◼︎ white ash  Fraxinus americana

OR they are NOT ( leaf scar shape= semicircle or oval), but with …
twigs=rusty ⫴ hairy;  buds=rusty ⫴ hairy;  outer-bark inner-face=​reddish
◼︎ red ash  Fraxinus pennsylvanica

OR they are NOT, but with …
buds=near-black;  bark=smooth can-be-rubbed-off
◼︎ black ash  Fraxinus nigra

OR they are NOT, but with …
buds=red-brown;  bark=ridged firm;  leaf scar shape=D◗
◼︎◼︎ red ash variant green ash  Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Learn more about ash genus Fraxinus (Fraxinus spp.)

Part of ash / lilac / olive  family Oleaceae.

Uses by native peoples
(Ethnobotany database)

Fraxinus hosts caterpillars of 150 species
of butterflies and moths, in some areas.

🗺 Map by county (🇺🇸 USA-48) (color key).

Formerly abundant in much of North America and Europe, in much of their ranges, all native ash trees with stem diameter over 2½ cm (1 in) (taller than a 🏀︎ basketball hoop or so) have been or are now being killed by parasitic insect emerald ash borer (EAB)  Agrilus planipennis.

Although we know some homeowners, who for over a decade, protect their six adult ash trees through annual treatments.  And on a larger scale, we have heard that some communities do the same.  We have no details on this treatment, but we could find out.

And our local tribe is growing out thousands of ◼︎ black ash  Fraxinus nigra 🌱︎ seedlings.  We have no details on what the tribe plans to do with these seedlings, nor why they think they will survive, but we could find out.

Native alternatives for ash trees killed by EAB (Missouri Botanical Garden).

🔍︎ 🔍︎ images Discover Life Encyclopedia of Life Michigan Flora Minnesota Wildflowers Flora of North America USDA PLANTS db Wikipedia