Successive buds always 180° around stem, often making stem zig-zag between buds

bark=very thick vertical ribs, looks covered with warts or puffy paint;  often has dark 🍒︎ cherry-like fruit
hackberry  Celtis occidentalis

buds=very small, partly hiding beneath twig bark;  often has dry seed capsules
sourwood  Oxydendrum arboreum

buds=not hiding :

Buds=centered over leaf scar

thorns=none;  twigs do not zig-zag, are light-brown;  side-buds=same width as twig;
mulberry  genus Morus

side-buds=wider than twig;  bark=long ◼︎ square-ended strips peel upward
American hophornbeam or 🛠 ironwood  Ostrya virginiana

side-buds=wider than twig;  bark=gray or dark-blue
American hornbeam or 💪︎ musclewood  Carpinus caroliniana

Successive buds spiral around stem, with stem NOT zig-zagging

leaf scars[?]=raised;  lenticels[?]=light-colored and raised, conspicuous against dark shiny bark

leaf scars=compact, with 3 bundle scars,[?] centered directly above side bud ⨇ scale[?]
aspen/​cottonwood/​poplar  genus Populus

leaf scars =🌙︎ thin crescent;  buds=⫴ hairy and blunt; tree=wide
🍎︎ common apple  Malus pumila

leaf scars =🌙︎ thin crescent;  buds=woolly tips;  twigs=​smooth
🍎︎ wild crabapple  Malus coronaria

leaf scars =🌙︎ thin crescent;  buds=woolly tips;  twigs=​woolly
🍎︎ prairie crabapple  Malus ioensis