with
twigs=thin  (≤12 mm) (≤½ in)  OR  cut twigs show little pith or
twigs=thick (>12 mm) (>½ in) AND cut twigs show mostly pith :

Twigs=thick (>12 mm) (>½ in) AND cut twigs show mostly pith

terminal bud much larger than other buds;  each bud has bark fold circling the twig   >   magnolias genus Magnolia
terminal buds larger than side buds;  small tree in wet area   >   X✋︎ DO NOT TOUCH ✋︎X  poison sumac Toxicodendron vernix

no terminal bud;  leaf scars have 3-5 BUNDLE SCARS   >   Kentucky coffeetree Gymnocladus dioicus
no terminal bud;  leaf scars have many BUNDLE SCARS;  bark=smooth tan or light gray, lots of lenticels   >   tree of heaven Ailanthus altissima

shrubby, not a tree;  stem and twigs=hairy;  leaf scar shape=C   >   staghorn sumac Rhus typhina